Computer is an electronic device that execute the instruction given in a program and controls the operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms. Computer are found everywhere around us, performing different tasks, weather we notice it or not. Computers are used during purchase of our groceries, pumping of gas at ATM, during a vehicle etc.
Computer has four functions to perform.
- Accept data input.
- Processes data processing.
- Produces Output.
- Stores the Output for the further use.
Types of Computer
There are different types of computer for different purpose.
- Personal Computer: Computers for Personal use come in all shapes and sizes. A Personal Computer (PC) is a multi-reason PC whose size, capacities, and value make it plausible for singular utilize. PCs are planned to be worked straightforwardly by an end client, instead of by a PC master or specialist. PC time-sharing models that were ordinarily utilized with bigger, more costly minicomputer and centralized server frameworks, to empower them be utilized by many individuals in the meantime, are not utilized with PCs.
- Mini Computer: As the Personal Computers has become very powerful on its own, the mini computers have become of less important. Mini Computers are designed to carry out some specific tasks, like engineering and computer added design, calculation.
- Mainframe Computers: Mainframe Computers are the computers that are used by large organization for critical applications, bulk data processing. The Mainframe Computers are the back bone for the entire business word. it is considered as a heart of a network of computers or terminals that allow a large number of peoples to work a same time and on the same data.
- Super Computer: A Super Computer is a computer with a high level of computing performance compared to general purpose computers. performance of super computer is measures in FLOPS rather then in MIPS(Million Instruction per second). they are used for the tasks that require massive calculations, like engineering design and testing, weather forecasting etc.
- Digital Computer: Digital Computers are high speed, programmable electronic devices that perform mathematical calculation, compare values and store the results. They recognize data by counting discrete signals representing either a high or low voltage stage of electricity.
- Analog Computer: An Analog Computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved. In contrast, digital computers represent varying quantities symbolically, as their numerical values change.
Components of Computers
Computers are made from various components that perform some specific functions.
- Input Unit: An input unit is everything that we tell the computers. the input may be of the various forms such as data, program, instruction, commands, user response.
- Central Processing Unit(CPU): A Central Processing unit is a electronic circuit that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. CPU perform all the processing work of the computer and controls all its parts and therefore also termed as the brain of the computer.
- Memory Unit: It is also one of the important part of computer. it stores data, calculation and the results into it and in case of need, it sends the data in the form of output. the capacity of the memory is measured in terms of Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte,Gigabyte. There are two types of Computer Memory: (i) Primary Memory: it holds the data received form the input devices, RAM is the example of Primary Memory, All active programs and data are stored in RAM so that are readily available and easily accessible by the CPU. (ii) Secondary Memory: Secondary Memory is known as Permanent Memory, ROM is the example of the Secondary Memory, it is a non-volatile memory and data stored in the ROM never loss.
- Output Unit: An output is a data that has been processed in some useful form .
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