Full-Form of COMPUTER is Commonly Operated Machine Particularly Used for Technology Education and Research. A computer is present almost everywhere in our lives in various forms today.
From supercomputers to a personal computers, digital to analog computers, we can define computers as devices that accept data as input and process it with instruction to produce meaningful information as output through mathematical and logical operations.
The device has a memory that stores the data, programs, and results of processing. Though there is no full form of computer, some people consider Common Operating Machine Used for Technological and Educational Research as the complete form of computer.
The analytical engine was the first mechanical computer invented by Charles Babbage, the father of the computer.
- He invented the first mechanical computer known as the Analytical engine.
- About 4000 years ago, Abacus, invented by the Chinese.
- It is a simple calculator made of beads and wires.
- The beads are moved by the abacus operator according to some rules to perform arithmetic calculations.
- Some other famous type of simple computing devices was Napier’s bones, Pascaline, Stepped Reckoner or Leibnitz wheel, Difference Engine, Analytical Engine, Tabulating Machine, Mark I, etc.
The standard way is to classify the computer according to the working principle and size.
Based on Working Principle
- Analog computer
- Digital computer
- Hybrid computer
Based on Generation
- Generation 1 — Vacuum Tubes
Those were computers that took the whole room, produced a massive amount of heat, consumed a lot of electricity, and had limited memory power and processing capability.
2. Generation 2 — Transistor
Vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors which were a path-breaking innovation reducing the size of a working computer.
3. Generation 3 — Integrated Circuits
An Integrated Circuit is a collection of transistors. With the advent of ICs, more transistors could create computers with a more considerable amount of processing power.
4. Generation 4 — Microprocessors
It is formed by a couple of integrated circuits integrated.
5. Generation 5 — AI
Now Artificial Intelligence is the present trend.
We can see a pattern where computer size and cost decrease and processing power increases over time. This is known as MOORE’s law.
Based on Size
- Micro Computer
- Mini Computer
- Mainframe Computer
- The primary use of the computer is to make our life easier.
- Imagine our lives in any fields like Designing, Research, Construction, Communication, Banking, Marketing, Business, Defense and military, Education, Medical, Transportation, etc.
- Some critical applications that have made a significant impact in history are the Abacus, Difference Engine, APPLE MAC, and Turing Machine.
The main reason for the computer revolution is availability and accessibility. Almost everyone in the world has some form of computer in their position used daily. Every day, there are innovations taking place. We are slowly reaching boundaries where Moore’s Law is breaking down, and we are slowly moving towards quantum computing. The most recent innovation currently intertwining our lives, even more, is the Internet of Things, which will unify all the devices, both digital and mechanical making it seamless. Like all things, there are good and bad effects. There have been various social, economic, and even environmental impacts of computers that have been a source of debate.
The way forward is to remember that computers are there to assist us rather than the other way around.
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