The computer is an electronic device that executes the instruction given in a program and controls the operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms. These devices are found everywhere around us, performing different tasks, whether we notice them or not. Computers are used during the purchase of our groceries, at gas stations, ATMs, etc. Here in this post, we have explained the fundamentals of computer notes for all government competitive exams.
Functions Of Computer
While you are learning about the Fundamentals Of a Computer, you need to know the main functions of a computer. A computer performs the four main functions, namely:
- Accept data input.
- Processes data processing.
- Produces output.
- Stores the output for further use.
Types of Computers
Computers are of various types. They can be categorized in two ways on the basis of size and data handling capabilities.
Basis Of Size
On the basis of size computers are divided into five main categories:
- Super Computer: Supercomputers are the biggest and fastest computers (in terms of data processing speed). They are designed in such a manner that they can process a large amount of data, like processing numerous instructions or data in a second. This is possible because in supercomputers thousands of processors are interconnected. Supercomputers are basically used in scientific and engineering applications such as scientific simulations, weather forecasting, stock markets, and nuclear energy research. Supercomputer was first developed by Roger Cray in 1976.
- Mainframe computer: Mainframe computers are designed to support hundreds or thousands of users at the same time. They can also support multiple programs and execute different processes simultaneously. All these features make the mainframe computers ideal for organizations that process a large amount of data in general, such as the banking sectors, telecom sectors, etc. They can run smoothly for a long time and has a long life.
- Minicomputer: Minicomputer is a medium-size multiprocessing computer. In a mini-computer, there are two or more processors, and it can support 4 to 200 users at a time. Minicomputers are suitable for institutes or departments to perform various tasks such as billing, accounting, inventory management, etc. They are smaller than mainframe computers but are larger in comparison to the microcomputer. Due to their low weight, they can be easily carried anywhere.
- Workstation: A workstation is designed to perform technical or scientific tasks. The processor used in a workstation is fast, with a large amount of RAM, and a high-speed graphic adapter. They are basically single-user computers. They are expensive but can perform specific tasks with great accuracy.
- PC (Personal Computer): A personal computer or PC is also known as a microcomputer. They are basically general-purpose computers that are designed for individual use. They consist of a microprocessor as a central processing unit (CPU), memory, an input unit, and an output unit. Personal computers are suitable for personal work such as assignment making, movie watching, general office work, etc. For example, Laptops and desktop computers.
Basis Of Data Handling
On the basis of data handling capabilities, computers are divided into three:
- Analogue Computer: They are designed to process analogue data i.e. data that changes continuously and cannot have discrete values. An analogue computer is used where we don’t need exact values or need approximate values such as speed, temperature, pressure, etc. Analogue computers can accept the data directly from measuring devices without converting it into numbers and codes. The output is displayed as a reading on the dial or scale. For example, speedometer, mercury thermometer, etc.
- Digital Computer: Digital computers are designed to perform calculations and logical operations at a high speed. The raw data is an input and process with programs stored in their memory to generate the final output. Digital computers only understand the binary input 0 and 1, so the raw input data is converted to 0 and 1 by the computer and then processed by the digital computer to generate the final output. All modern computers, like laptops, desktops including smartphones are digital computers.
- Hybrid Computer: A Hybrid Computer is a combination of analogue and digital computers. Hybrid computers are fast like analogue computers and have memory, and accuracy like a digital computer. They have the ability to process both continuous and discrete data. Hybrid computers accept analogue signals as input and then converts them into digital form before processing the input data. The processor which is used in petrol pumps that converts the measurements of fuel flow into quantity and price is an example of a hybrid computer.
Components of Computers
Another important thing that comes under the Fundamentals Of Computer is the components. Computers are made from the following components that perform specific functions:
- Input Unit: An input unit is everything that we tell the computers. The input may be of various forms such as data, program, instruction, commands, or user response.
- Central Processing Unit (CPU): A Central Processing Unit is an electronic circuit that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The CPU performs all the processing tasks of the computer and controls all its parts, and therefore is also termed as the brain of the computer.
- Memory Unit: It is also one of the important parts of the computer. It stores data, calculations and the results into it and in case of need, it sends the data in the form of output. The capacity of the memory is measured in terms of Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, and Gigabyte. There are two types of Computer Memory.
- Primary Memory: It holds the data received from the input devices. RAM is an example of Primary Memory. All active programs and data are stored in RAM so that are readily available and easily accessible by the CPU.
- Secondary Memory: Secondary Memory is known as Permanent Memory. The ROM is an example of Secondary Memory. It is a non-volatile memory and the data stored in the ROM is never lost.
- Output Unit: An output is data that has been processed in some useful form.
Another Fundamentals Of Computer is knowing the generations of computer. There are five generations of a computer:
The computer is an electronic device that executes the instruction given in a program and controls the operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms. These devices are found everywhere around us. Computers are used during the purchase of our groceries, at gas stations, at ATMs, etc.
Here in this post, we explained the Fundamentals Of Computer notes in detail which will help you in preparing for the banking competitive entrance exams easily.
All the best for your exams!
People are also reading: