Who Was Marie Curie?
Marie Curie was the first lady ever to win a Nobel Prize, in Physics, and with her later success, in Chemistry, she turned into the only individual to have received the Nobel Prize twice. Her endeavors with her better half Pierre prompted the disclosure of polonium and radium, and she supported the advancement of X-rays.
Marie Curie Biography
Early Life and Education
Maria Sklodowska, later known as Marie Curie, was born on 7 November 1867, in Warsaw (which is now known as Poland). Curie was the youngest born of her parents and had four other siblings, Zosia, Józef, Bronya, and Hela. Both of Curie’s parents were educators. Her dad, Wladyslaw, was a mathematics and material science educator. At the point when she was just 10, Curie lost her mom, Bronislawa, to tuberculosis.
As a kid, Curie took after her dad. She had a splendid and inquisitive brain and exceeded expectations at school. In spite of being a brilliant student in her optional school, Curie couldn’t go to the University of Warsaw as it was only for boys. She rather proceeded with her training in Warsaw’s floating college, which was a then illegal, secretive school which was held informally and secretively.
Both Curie and her sister Bronya longed for traveling to another country to gain an official degree, yet they did not have the monetary assets to pay for all the tutoring. Unfazed, Curie worked out an arrangement with her sister: She would work to help Bronya while she was in school, and Bronya would give back in kind after she finished her education.
For about five years, Curie functioned as a coach and a tutor. She utilized her extra an ideal opportunity to examine, finding out about material Chemistry, Physics, and Mathematics. In 1891, Curie at long last advanced toward Paris and was selected at the Sorbonne. She devoted herself completely to her examinations; however, this commitment had an individual expense: with minimal expenditure, Curie made due on buttered bread and tea, and her wellbeing at times endured due to her less than stellar eating routine.
Curie finished her UG degree in chemistry in 1893 and earned another degree in maths the next year.
Union with Pierre Curie
Marie wedded French physicist Pierre Curie on 26 July 26, 1895. They were introduced to each other by a friend of Marie’s after she moved on from Sorbonne University; Marie had gotten a commission to play out an examination on various kinds of steel and their attractive properties and required a lab for her work.
A sentiment created between the splendid pair, and they turned into a powerful logical team that was totally given to each other. From the outset, Marie and Pierre took a shot at discrete undertakings. Yet, after Marie found radioactivity, Pierre set aside his own work to assist her with her examination.
Marie endured an enormous misfortune in 1906 when Pierre was executed in Paris after inadvertently coming in the way of a horse-drawn cart. In spite of her huge anguish, she assumed control over his teaching job at the Sorbonne, turning into the foundation’s first female teacher.
In 1911, Curie’s relationship with her better half’s previous understudy, Paul Langevin, got open. Curie was criticized in the press for breaking Langevin’s marriage, the antagonism to a limited extent originating from rising xenophobia in France.
In 1897, Marie and Pierre became the parents of a girl, Irène. The couple had a daughter, Ève, in 1904. Irène Joliot-Curie emulated her mom’s example, winning the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1935. Joliot-Curie imparted the respect to her significant other, Frédéric Joliot, for their work on the union of new radioactive components.
In 1937, Ève Curie composed the first of numerous accounts gave to her renowned mother, Madame Curie, which turned into an element film a couple of years after the fact.
Curie found radioactivity, and, along with her significant other Pierre, the radioactive components polonium and radium while working with the mineral pitchblende. She additionally advocated the advancement of X-rays after Pierre’s demise.
Radioactivity, Polonium, and Radium
Interested in crafted by Henri Becquerel, a French physicist who found that uranium pushes off rays more fragile than the X-rays found by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, Curie made his work a couple of strides further.
Curie directed her own investigations on uranium rays and found that they stayed consistent, regardless of the condition or type of uranium. The rays, she speculated, originated from the component’s nuclear structure. This progressive thought made the field of nuclear material science. Curie herself instituted “radioactivity” to depict the wonders.
Following Curie’s disclosure of radioactivity, she proceeded with her examination with her significant other Pierre. Working with the mineral pitchblende, they found another radioactive component in 1898. They named the component polonium, after Curie’s local nation of Poland.
They likewise recognized the nearness of another radioactive material in the pitchblende and called that radium. In 1902, the Curies declared that they had delivered a decigram of unadulterated radium, exhibiting its reality as an exceptional synthetic component.
Advancement of X-rays
When World War I broke out in 1914, Curie committed her time and assets to support the reason. She advocated the utilization of compact X-beam machines in the field, and these clinical vehicles earned the epithet “Little Curies.”
After the war, Curie utilized her superstar to propel her exploration. She went to the United States twice — in 1921 and in 1929 — to raise assets to purchase radium and to set up radium examine foundation in Warsaw.
Awards and Achievements
Curie won two Nobel Prizes, for material science in 1903 and for science in 1911. She was the only lady to win a Nobel Prize as well as the only person to win the renowned honor twice. She remains the only individual to be awarded for achievements in two separate sciences.
Curie got the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903, alongside her better half and Henri Becquerel, for their work on radioactivity. With their success, the Curies built up universal fame for their logical endeavors, and they utilized their prize cash to proceed with their examination.
In 1911, Curie won her subsequent Nobel Prize, this time in Chemistry, for her revelation of radium and polonium. While she got the prize alone, she shared respect together with her late spouse in her acknowledgment address.
Around this time, Curie got together with different well-known researchers, including Albert Einstein and Max Planck, to go to the first Solvay Congress in Quite a while and examine the numerous pivotal revelations in their field.
Curie took her last breath on 4 July 1934, of aplastic weakness, accepted to be brought about by prolonged exposure to radiation. She was known to carry test containers of radium around in the pocket of her jacket. Her numerous years working with radioactive materials negatively affected her wellbeing.