## Introduction

Candidates need to review the GATE syllabus for the stream that they wish to appear. The syllabus defines the topics or subtopics that the candidates need to prepare for appearing in the examination. It’s a very important part of the examination as it helps the students know what they have to study.

This article will give you complete information regarding the GATE Biotechnology Syllabus 2023.

**GATE Biotechnology Syllabus (BT) 2024**

GATE Biotechnology Syllabus (BT) Consists of 5 Sections, Engineering Mathematics, General Biotechnology, Recombinant DNA Technology, Plant and Animal Biotechnology, Bioprocess Engineering, and Process Biotechnology.

### Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

### Linear Algebra

**Algebra of matrices:** Inverse and rank of a matrix; System of linear equations; Symmetric, skew-symmetric and orthogonal matrices; Determinants; Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Diagonalisation of matrices; Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.

### Calculus

**Functions of a single variable:** Limit, continuity, and differentiability; Mean value theorems, Indeterminate forms, and L’Hospital’s rule; Maxima and minima; Taylor’s theorem, Fundamental theorem and mean value-theorems of integral calculus; Evaluation of definite and improper integrals; Applications of definite integrals to evaluate areas and volumes.

**Functions of two variables:** Limit, continuity, and partial derivatives; Directional derivative, Total derivative; Tangent plane and normal line; Maxima, minima and saddle points, Method of Lagrange multipliers; Double and triple integrals, and their applications.

**Sequence and series:** Convergence of sequence and series; Tests for convergence, Power series; Taylor’s series; Fourier Series; Half range sine and cosine series.

### Vector Calculus

Gradient, divergence, and curl; Line and surface integrals; Green’s theorem, Stokes theorem, and Gauss divergence theorem (without proofs).

### Complex Variable

Analytic functions; Cauchy-Riemann equations; Line integral, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula (without proof); Taylor’s series and Laurent series; Residue theorem (without proof) and its applications.

### Ordinary Differential Equation

First-order equations (linear and nonlinear); Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients; Second-order linear differential equations with variable coefficients; Method of variation of parameters; Cauchy-Euler equation; Power series solutions; Legendre polynomials, Bessel functions of the first kind and their properties.

### Partial Differential Equation

Classification of second-order linear partial differential equations; Method of separation of variables; Laplace equation; Solutions of one-dimensional heat and wave equations.

### Probability

Axioms of probability; Conditional probability; Bayes’ Theorem; Discrete and continuous random variables: Binomial, Poisson, and normal distributions; Correlation and linear regression.

### Numerical Methods

The solution of systems of linear equations using LU decomposition, Gauss elimination and Gauss-Seidel methods; Lagrange and Newton’s interpolations, Solution of polynomial and transcendental equations by Newton-Raphson method; Numerical integration by trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s rule and Gaussian quadrature rule; Numerical solutions of first-order differential equations by Euler’s method and 4th order Runge-Kutta method.

### Section 2: General Biotechnology

**Biochemistry:** Biomolecules-structure and functions; Biological membranes, structure, action potential and transport processes; Enzymes- classification, kinetics, and mechanism of action; Basic concepts and designs of metabolism (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleic acids) photosynthesis, respiration, and electron transport chain; Bioenergetics

**Microbiology:** Viruses- structure and classification; Microbial classification and diversity(bacterial, algal, and fungal); Methods in microbiology; Microbial growth and nutrition; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Nitrogen fixation; Microbial diseases and host-pathogen interaction.

**Cell Biology:** Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell-Cell communication, Cell signalling, and signal transduction

**Molecular Biology and Genetics:** Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; Mutations and mutagenesis; Nucleic acid replication, transcription, translation, and their regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination, and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal inheritance; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and Transposable elements; RNA interference; DNA damage and repair; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases.

**Analytical Techniques:** Principles of microscopy-light, electron, fluorescent and confocal; Centrifugation- high speed and ultra; Principles of spectroscopy-UV, visible, CD, IR, FTIR, Raman, MS, NMR; Principles of chromatography- ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, GC, HPLC, FPLC; Electrophoresis; Microarray

**Immunology:** History of Immunology; Innate, humoral and cell-mediated immunity; Antigen; Antibody structure and function; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; B and T cells and macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hypersensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.

Bioinformatics: Major bioinformatic resources and search tools; Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny); Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and proteomic studies; Molecular dynamics and simulations (basic concepts including force fields, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein-ligand interaction)

### Section 3: Recombinant DNA Technology

Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors; plasmid, bacteriophage, and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; mammalian and plant expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation, cloning, and expression; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization; RAPD, RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy.

### Section 4: Plant and Animal Biotechnology

Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Tissue culture and Cell suspension culture system: methodology, the kinetics of growth and, nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root culture; transgenic plants; Plant products of industrial importance

Animal cell culture; media composition and growth conditions; Animal cell and tissue preservation; Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture; Kinetics of cell growth; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology; Animal cloning; Transgenic animals

### Section 5: Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology

Chemical engineering principles applied to a biological system, Principle of reactor design, ideal and non-ideal multiphase bioreactors, mass and heat transfer; Rheology of fermentation fluids, Aeration, and agitation; Media formulation and optimization; Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization, and product formation; Sterilization of air and media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors; Instrumentation control and optimization; Unit operations in solid-liquid separation and liquid-liquid extraction; Process scale-up, economics, and feasibility analysis.

Engineering principle of bioprocessing- Upstream production and downstream; Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale; Microbial, animal and plant cell culture platforms; Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites; Biofuels, Bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; Large scale production and

purification of recombinant proteins; Industrial application of chromatographic and membrane-based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of biocatalysts (enzymes and cells) for bioconversion processes; Bioremediation-Aerobic and anaerobic processes for stabilization of solid/liquid wastes.

## Conclusion

GATE is one of the most competitive examinations that needs complete focus and a good understanding of basic concepts. In order to clear the exam, the candidates must have a thorough preparation.

Every subject requires a keen understanding and practice. You must devote a good amount of time to every subject based on your comfort and knowledge. Before starting the preparations, you must create a timetable that covers all your subjects/topics.

Try to appear for as many mock tests as possible.

*Good luck with your future!*

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