Candidates need to review the GATE syllabus for the stream that they will be appearing for. The syllabus defines the topics or subtopics that the candidates need to prepare for appearing in the examination. The syllabus is a very important part of the examination as it helps the students know what they have to study. This article will give you complete information regarding the GATE Biotechnology Syllabus 2022.
GATE Biotechnology Syllabus (BT) 2022
GATE Biotechnology Syllabus (BT) Consists of 5 Sections, Engineering Mathematics, General Biotechnology, Recombinant DNA Technology, Plant and Animal Biotechnology, Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology.
Section 1: Engineering Mathematics
Algebra of matrices: Inverse and rank of a matrix; System of linear equations; Symmetric, skew-symmetric and orthogonal matrices; Determinants; Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Diagonalisation of matrices; Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.
Functions of single variable: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems, Indeterminate forms and L’Hospital’s rule; Maxima and minima; Taylor’s theorem, Fundamental theorem and mean value-theorems of integral calculus; Evaluation of definite and improper integrals; Applications of definite integrals to evaluate areas and volumes.
Functions of two variables: Limit, continuity and partial derivatives; Directional derivative, Total derivative; Tangent plane and normal line; Maxima, minima and saddle points, Method of Lagrange multipliers; Double and triple integrals, and their applications.
Sequence and series: Convergence of sequence and series; Tests for convergence, Power series; Taylor’s series; Fourier Series; Half range sine and cosine series.
Gradient, divergence and curl; Line and surface integrals; Green’s theorem, Stokes theorem and Gauss divergence theorem (without proofs).
Analytic functions; Cauchy-Riemann equations; Line integral, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula (without proof); Taylor’s series and Laurent series; Residue theorem (without proof) and its applications.
Ordinary Differential Equation
First-order equations (linear and nonlinear); Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients; Second-order linear differential equations with variable coefficients; Method of variation of parameters; Cauchy-Euler equation; Power series solutions; Legendre polynomials, Bessel functions of the first kind and their properties.
Partial Differential Equation
Classification of second-order linear partial differential equations; Method of separation of variables; Laplace equation; Solutions of one-dimensional heat and wave equations.
Axioms of probability; Conditional probability; Bayes’ Theorem; Discrete and continuous random variables: Binomial, Poisson and normal distributions; Correlation and linear regression.
The solution of systems of linear equations using LU decomposition, Gauss elimination and Gauss-Seidel methods; Lagrange and Newton’s interpolations, Solution of polynomial and transcendental equations by Newton-Raphson method; Numerical integration by trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s rule and Gaussian quadrature rule; Numerical solutions of first-order differential equations by Euler’s method and 4th order Runge-Kutta method.
Section 2: General Biotechnology
Biochemistry: Biomolecules-structure and functions; Biological membranes, structure, action potential and transport processes; Enzymes- classification, kinetics and mechanism of action; Basic concepts and designs of metabolism (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids) photosynthesis, respiration and electron transport chain; Bioenergetics
Microbiology: Viruses- structure and classification; Microbial classification and diversity(bacterial, algal and fungal); Methods in microbiology; Microbial growth and nutrition; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Nitrogen fixation; Microbial diseases and host-pathogen interaction.
Cell Biology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell-Cell communication, Cell signalling and signal transduction
Molecular Biology and Genetics: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; Mutations and mutagenesis; Nucleic acid replication, transcription, translation and their regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal inheritance; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and Transposable elements; RNA interference; DNA damage and repair; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases.
Analytical Techniques: Principles of microscopy-light, electron, fluorescent and confocal; Centrifugation- high speed and ultra; Principles of spectroscopy-UV, visible, CD, IR, FTIR, Raman, MS, NMR; Principles of chromatography- ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, GC, HPLC, FPLC; Electrophoresis; Microarray
Immunology: History of Immunology; Innate, humoral and cell-mediated immunity; Antigen; Antibody structure and function; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; B and T cells and macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hypersensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.
Bioinformatics: Major bioinformatic resources and search tools; Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny); Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and proteomic studies; Molecular dynamics and simulations (basic concepts including force fields, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein-ligand interaction)
Section 3: Recombinant DNA Technology
Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors; plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; mammalian and plant expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation, cloning and expression; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labelling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization; RAPD, RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy.
Section 4: Plant and Animal Biotechnology
Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Tissue culture and Cell suspension culture system: methodology, the kinetics of growth and, nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root culture; transgenic plants; Plant products of industrial importance
Animal cell culture; media composition and growth conditions; Animal cell and tissue preservation; Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture; Kinetics of cell growth; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology; Animal cloning; Transgenic animals
Section 5: Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology
Chemical engineering principles applied to a biological system, Principle of reactor design, ideal and non-ideal multiphase bioreactors, mass and heat transfer; Rheology of fermentation fluids, Aeration and agitation; Media formulation and optimization; Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Sterilization of air and media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors; Instrumentation control and optimization; Unit operations in solid-liquid separation and liquid-liquid extraction; Process scale-up, economics and feasibility analysis.
Engineering principle of bioprocessing- Upstream production and downstream; Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale; Microbial, animal and plant cell culture platforms; Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites; Biofuels, Bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; Large scale production and
purification of recombinant proteins; Industrial application of chromatographic and membrane-based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of biocatalysts (enzymes and cells) for bioconversion processes; Bioremediation-Aerobic and anaerobic processes for stabilization of solid/liquid wastes.
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